Martin Luther was born on 10th November, 1483 in Eisleben. After graduating a Cathedral School in Magdeburg and Franciscan Convent School in Eisenach, according to the will of his father Hans, Martin started his law studies at university in Erfurt in May 1505. However, on 17th July of the same year, he suddenly entered the convent of Augustinian-hermits of the most severe rule. According to Luther, the reason of the decision was a vow which he had made when struck by lightning on 2nd July, although he had gone through some spiritual turmoil before. A journey to Rome in 1510 was a significant event in Luther’s life. He was struck by the sumptuousness of the capital of Christianity, the loss of morality of the clergy, the fact that Pope Julius II was more engaged with constant wars in Italy than leading the Church, and the common simony – sales of dignity, sacraments, and spiritual goods.
After coming back from Rome he became a professor in Wittenberg. The famous discourse about indulgences was in 1517, and in 1519, during a discussion with papal legate, Luther came into a conclusion that it was necessary not only to stop trading the grace of salvation, but also elaborated change of the Church. He also claimed that the pope’s prominence had not been assured by the Bible.
In 1521 Luther was excommunicated by Leo X. In the meantime, the issue began by Luther started to concern German politics. The emperor Charles V claimed him a heretics and banned him. Luther’s supporter, Frederick the Wise, simulated kidnapping and hid him in a castle in Wartburg. There Luther translated the New Testament into German language. Riots in Wittenberg and the so-called German Peasant’s War made him engaged in religious issues. Luther did not find the idea of celibacy in the Bible, so he married a former nun Katherine von Bora. They had six children together. Until his death in 1546, he was a activist of German Reformers. For Protestants Martin Luther was a restorer of the Church, Anglicans consider him as a saint. During the Second Vatican Council, Catholic Church considered that Luther’s teaching conveyed a lot of fair statements.
Luther was aware that to achieve it, a new, faithful translation into German had to be made. The translation of the New Testament on the grounds of the version devised by Erasmus of Rotterdam was made by Luther within the period of 10 weeks in the Wartburg castle. The translation from the date of its publishing in September 1522 is called The September Bible or The September Testament.
as it was his writing nickname – was born in Neustadt an der Aish in 1487. He was a rector in Saint Thomas School in Leipzig founded by Augustinians. His first meeting with Luther took place in Leipzig in 1519 during the famous debate. He took part in the debate as a secretary of Jan Eyck, papal legate, who stood against Luther. During the discussion, Gramman was convinced by the argumentation of Luther and changed sides. In 1526, recommended by Luther, he took the position of pastor in church in Konigsberg, which was the capital of the new arising Lutheran country – Prussia.
Known as a prominent humanist and the author of religious poetry in both German and Latin. He was an activist while establishing the University of Konigsberg by Albreht Hohenzollern, where he gave lectures and aided the library with 1000 books from his own collection. With Paul Speratus and Johann Briesmann he conducted reformatory activity in Prussia. Martin Luther called him ‘Prussia Apostle’. He died in Konigsberg in 1541.
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